Pendeteksian Earnings Management…




  • PENDETEKSIAN EARNINGS MANAGEMENT, UNDERPRICING DAN PENGUKURAN KINERJA PERUSAHAAN YANG MELAKUKAN KEBIJAKAN INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING (IPO) DI INDONESIA

    AMINUL AMIN

    STIE Malangkucecwara, Malang

    ABSTRACT

    Earnings Management, underpricing and performance of company joining policy of IPO draw to be studied. Differ from research Husnan ( 1996) to research phenomenon of underpricing of moment IPO, Nasirwan ( 2002) testing performance of pasca IPO, and Candy ( 2002) testing performance operate for and the finance performance, this research extend examination to phenomenon of earnings management, underpricing and company performance ( finance, market) together.

    As much 31 company conducting IPO in Jakarta Stock Exchange in research of during period 1990 up to 2001, with unit analysis of during 6 year consisted of 3 year before IPO and 3 year after IPO, so that there is 186 unit analysis.

    Result of examination indicate that mean discretionary accrual is positive, what indication that company executing IPO of indication do policy of earnings management three year before IPO and three year after IPO by playing component accruals. But discretionary accrual before IPO and after IPO not differ, this matter indicate that company still continue policy of earnings management at least until three year after IPO.

    Furthermore examination to underpricing using initial return ( Rt), proving that company executing IPO experience of underpricing on first when share traded in market sekunder. Mean of Initial return on first of trading in capital market is positive, even happened positive return until the third month a period of trading, afterthat happened degradation of return by the end of year (December).

    Although there no difference which signifikan of performance of finance before and after IPO, result of examination prove that company executing IPO experience of degradation of performance of finance, whereas performance of market show there is difference of return [of] before IPO by return [is] first day [of] trading [in] Stock Exchange Market, and there is downhill tendency after IPO especially by the end of year.

    If connected third the above phenomenon, in general the researcher cannot prove relation between policy earnings management, phenomenon underpricing, and the company market performance and finance performance conducting IPO.

    Keywords: Initial Public Offerings (IPO), Earnings Management, underpricing and performance of company

    PENDAHULUAN

    Perusahaan yang akan go public biasanya dimulai dengan keputusan melakukan initial public offerings (IPO) yang dilakukan di pasar perdana (primary market). Selanjutnya saham tersebut akan di perjual-belikan di pasar modal atau disebut pasar sekunder (secondary market). Harga saham pada penawaran perdana ditentukan berdasarkan kesepakatan antara perusahaan emiten dengan penjamin emisi efek (underwriter) sebagai pihak yang membutuhkan dana, emiten menginginkan harga perdana tinggi. Sebaliknya, underwriter sebagai penjamin emisi berusaha untuk meminimalkan risiko yang ditanggungnya. Dalam tipe penjaminan full comitment, pihak underwriter akan membeli saham yang tidak di jual di pasar perdana. Keadaan tersebut membuat underwriter tidak berkeinginan untuk membeli saham yang tidak laku dijual. Upaya yang dilakukan adalah dengan bernegosiasi dengan emiten agar saham tersebut tidak terlalu tinggi harganya, bahkan cenderung underpriced.

    Underpricing merupakan fenomena yang menarik karena dialami oleh sebagian besar pasar modal di dunia. Karena itu seringkali pada pasar perdana (IPO) dijumpai fenomena underpricing (Ritter,1991; McGuinnes, 1992; Husnan, 1993; Aggrawal, et al., 1993; Ernyan dan Husnan, 2002). Penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Aggrawal, et al. (1993) menyimpulkan bahwa IPO dalam jangka pendek menunjukkan terjadinya underpricing, tetapi dalam jangka panjang terjadi return yang negatif. Underpricing ini di satu pihak menguntungkan investor tetapi di pihak lain akan merugikan emiten karena dana yang dikumpulkan tidak maksimal.

    *Simposium Nasional Akuntansi 10 Makassar

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